Whereas living turtles are toothless, many ancestral forms possessed teeth. Many of the oldest and most primitive forms not only lacked a shell but also lacked a plastron and a carapace. However, early turtles did possess precursors to these structures. As these structures evolved and the turtle’s carapace emerged in later forms, the flexibility of the spine was reduced and crawling speed declined. Eunotosaurus was toothed, and its midsection contained nine elongated trunk vertebrae , nine pairs of broad T-shaped dorsal ribs, and five pairs of gastralia ventrally located abdominal ribs. Collectively, these modified bones may have served as a type of intermediate shell structure from which the carapace and plastron evolved. Similar structures also appear in Pappochelys, a younger, toothed species dating from about million ago during the Middle Triassic Epoch. These broad-ribbed structures likely evolved to provide these early forms with more stability and leverage for burrowing.

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For this reason, the history of dating tends to be quite different for the LGBT population. Thus, the phrase “going out on a date” became popularized. During the s and s, dating became a system of ratings. The dating scene among college students was very competitive: Women became less concerned with a man’s status and more about his likelihood of survival.

This time period is said to mark the end of the dating era, and the beginning of the “hookup” culture.

Especially the blue paint transferred on opposite pages; Folios 12 and 74 were cut out sometime later.

The origin of the manuscript, describing its creation and addressing the questions where, when, who, how, how long etc. The history of the manuscript, describing its whereabouts and who owned it until present The history of the research and analysis of the MS This page addresses the first part, the origin or creation of the manuscript. It will first address the process of creating the MS, and the time frame when this probably took place, followed by a discussion about the possible place where this happened, and the possible author s.

No attempt is made to identify sources used in the process. A word on terminology The production of an illustrated medieval manuscript typically involved several different people. Several other people would have been more involved with the materials parchment maker, book binder and are not considered here. On this page, I am not referring to people but to ‘roles’, and leave open all possibilities, for example that several roles were performed by the same person e.

I will usually refer to the ‘author’ as if the MS were conceived and written by a single person. While this could be true, it is not necessarily the case and it is done for convenience and readability. The ‘artist’ is the person or persons who made the drawings, regardless of their perceived artistic quality. The question about the number of people involved is briefly discussed further below. The species was established in by means of protein analysis 1.


View All The term is a word used to reference pot smoking. While the term was historically used as a “code” to designate someone’s activities or beliefs, such as ” friendly,” most people are now aware of it’s association with marijuana. Despite the popularity of the term, most people have no idea how or why became associated with marijuana. There are a lot of myths and stories about it’s origins. Known Myths There are many rumors floating around about why the term is used.

Here are some of the most popular myths:

This means that the author had knowledge of at least two important sciences of his time.

Family of Origin You may smile — or cringe — when your spouse has a different way of doing something. It may also include a grandparent, other relative, or divorced parents who lived with you during part of your childhood. These people strongly influence who we become. Men and women who grew up in relatively healthy, functional families make adjustments in a marriage relationship. They learn to accommodate each other.

At times you may smile or cringe when your spouse has a different way of doing something, i. You might complain, but then adjust. For example, perhaps your mother was a fanatic about keeping a clean, neat house. In marriage, of course, there are a million of these differences, many minor, some big. You can and will argue about some of them, insisting that your way is the right way. There is room for compromise.


Then philosophy migrated from every direction to Athens itself, at the center, the wealthiest commercial power and the most famous democracy of the time [ note ]. Socrates, although uninterested in wealth himself, nevertheless was a creature of the marketplace, where there were always people to meet and where he could, in effect, bargain over definitions rather than over prices.

Similarly, although Socrates avoided participation in democratic politics, it is hard to imagine his idiosyncratic individualism, and the uncompromising self-assertion of his defense speech, without either wealth or birth to justify his privileges, occurring in any other political context.

Gray and Atkinson analysed 87 languages from Irish to Afghan.

Just as intriguing, for those who like to lambaste American Football being called such when the ball interacts primarily with hands, most of the earliest forms of Football were named thus, not because you kicked a ball with your foot, but because they were played on foot. Peasants played most of their sports on foot; aristocrats played most of theirs on horseback. Indeed, many of the earliest forms of football involved carrying balls in an attempt to get across goal lines passed some opposing team or individual players.

Soccer balls were originally painted with the now classic black and white checkered look in order to make them more visible on black and white TV during the FIFA World Cup. Naturally, people wanted to buy balls that looked like those that the professionals used on TV and thus everybody bought the black and white checkered soccer ball instead of the previous traditional solid color ball.

Legend has it, during a Football match at that school, William Webb Ellis picked up the ball in his hands and ran with it over the goal line. The official Rugby Union was then formed in with a split in forming the Rugby League.

Grandfather clock

Origin[ edit ] Lateral view of a longcase clock movement without striking mechanism, mid s. The advent of the longcase clock is due to the invention of the anchor escapement mechanism by Robert Hooke around These consumed less power allowing clocks to run longer between windings, caused less friction and wear in the movement, and were more accurate. The long narrow case actually predated the anchor clock by a few decades, appearing in clocks in to allow a long drop for the powering weights.

The ceremony originally had immediate connexion with the True Cross , which was found by St.

However, by the 19th century Louis Pasteur and other scientists had seemingly dealt it [spontaneous generation] a deathblow, having proved by experiments that life comes only from previous life. How did it get here? In particular, they did not show that life cannot arise once, and then evolve. Neither Pasteur, nor any other post-Darwin researcher in this field, denied the age of the earth or the fact of evolution.

Introduction A recurring theme in antievolution literature is that if science cannot account for the origin of life, evolution is false, and that “spontaneous generation” was disproven, so therefore evolution is false. This syllogism fails, because evolution that is, common descent and transmutation of species occurs whether or not life arose by chance, law or design, but there is another more insidious mistake here.

It is not true that “spontaneous generation” has been ruled out in all cases by science; the claims disproven were more restricted than that. We will look at the history of the idea, and then the disproofs, and finally the relation of the origin of life to evolutionary theory in general. As always, we start with the Greeks. Once we reach Pasteur, the implications of the debate to that point for evolution will be considered.


Tweet There are as many different kinds of relationships as there are combinations of people. To get the most out of your current or future partnership, be clear on what it is you want. After a pretty brutal breakup of mine , I remember the day I finally emerged from wallowing in my dark cold basement. Then she sat me down in front of my computer and told me I was going to start dating again. I looked at her in horror.

Thinking that it’s cool to smoke marijuana every day at 4:

Link The weekend evolved from the religious concept of the sabbath. The weekend evolved from the religious concept of the sabbath, a day devoted to God and not work. In Jewish tradition, the sabbath is from sunset on Friday to sunset on Saturday. Most Christians eventually adopted Sunday as their day of worship and rest. Over time, workplaces in Western countries began to accommodate those religious observances.

Professor Greg Patmore, a labour and business historian at the University of Sydney, says Australia’s early convicts were encouraged to spend Sundays at church, which was seen as good for their character. But what about Saturday? The two-day weekend evolved alongside campaigns for a shorter working week. Workers in 18th and 19th century Britain started to ask for longer breaks from the harsh working conditions of industrialisation — as opposed to farming, which depended on daylight and the demands of the farm.


Controversy[ edit ] Anthropologist Helen Fisher in What happens in the dating world can reflect larger currents within popular culture. For example, when the book The Rules appeared, it touched off media controversy about how men and women should relate to each other, with different positions taken by columnist Maureen Dowd of The New York Times [56] and British writer Kira Cochrane of The Guardian. Sara McCorquodale suggests that women meeting strangers on dates meet initially in busy public places, share details of upcoming dates with friends or family so they know where they’ll be and who they’ll be with, avoid revealing one’s surname or address, and conducting searches on them on the Internet prior to the date.

Huxley, as we shall see later.

So suggests new research that tracked changes in two genes thought to help regulate brain growth, changes that appeared well after the rise of modern humans , years ago. That the defining feature of humans — our large brains — continued to evolve as recently as 5, years ago, and may be doing so today, promises to surprise the average person, if not biologists. Lahn and colleagues examined two genes, named microcephalin and ASPM, that are connected to brain size.

If those genes don’t work, babies are born with severely small brains, called microcephaly. Using DNA samples from ethnically diverse populations, they identified a collection of variations in each gene that occurred with unusually high frequency. In fact, the variations were so common they couldn’t be accidental mutations but instead were probably due to natural selection, where genetic changes that are favorable to a species quickly gain a foothold and begin to spread, the researchers report.

Lahn offers an analogy: Medieval monks would copy manuscripts and each copy would inevitably contain errors — accidental mutations. Years later, a ruler declares one of those copies the definitive manuscript, and a rush is on to make many copies of that version — so whatever changes from the original are in this presumed important copy become widely disseminated. Scientists attempt to date genetic changes by tracing back to such spread, using a statistical model that assumes genes have a certain mutation rate over time.

For the microcephalin gene, the variation arose about 37, years ago, about the time period when art, music and tool-making were emerging, Lahn said.


The name Budweiser is a derivative adjective, meaning “of Budweis”. In , Adolphus Busch and his friend Carl Conrad, a liquor importer, developed a “Bohemian-style” lager in the United States, inspired after a trip to the region. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Adolphus Busch adapted this slogan to “The King of Beers.

In the cities at least, it is becoming more accepted for two people to meet and try to find if there is compatibility.

The metaphor is based on the idea of lateralization of brain function although each half of a normal human brain is constantly communicating with the other through the corpus callosum. The metaphor is not meant to imply that the two halves of the bicameral brain were “cut off” from each other but that the bicameral mind was experienced as a different, non-conscious mental schema wherein volition in the face of novel stimuli was mediated through a linguistic control mechanism and experienced as auditory verbal hallucination.

The bicameral mentality would be non-conscious in its inability to reason and articulate about mental contents through meta-reflection, reacting without explicitly realizing and without the meta-reflective ability to give an account of why one did so. The bicameral mind would thus lack metaconsciousness, autobiographical memory and the capacity for executive “ego functions” such as deliberate mind-wandering and conscious introspection of mental content.

When bicamerality as a method of social control was no longer adaptive in complex civilizations, this mental model was replaced by the conscious mode of thought which, Jaynes argued, is grounded in the acquisition of metaphorical language learned by exposure to narrative practice. According to Jaynes, ancient people in the bicameral state of mind would have experienced the world in a manner that has some similarities to that of a schizophrenic.

Rather than making conscious evaluations in novel or unexpected situations, the person would hallucinate a voice or “god” giving admonitory advice or commands and obey without question: Research into “command hallucinations” that often direct the behavior of those labeled schizophrenic, as well as other voice hearers, supports Jaynes’s predictions. He took an interdisciplinary approach, drawing data from many different fields.

Cougar (slang)

Share Latin ad-venio , to come to. According to present [ ] usage, Advent is a period beginning with the Sunday nearest to the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle 30 November and embracing four Sundays. The first Sunday may be as early as 27 November, and then Advent has twenty-eight days, or as late as 3 December, giving the season only twenty-one days. With Advent the ecclesiastical year begins in the Western churches.

Today in WW II:

As we trace the timeline of dating rituals, we can get a better sense of how Americans throughout time understood love and, by extension, the world. With the advent of new technologies cell phones, social media, Tinder, etc. It is important to note that historically many of these mainstream rituals were strictly confined to heterosexual dating.

Dating did not yet exist in the modern sense; society instead favored a courtship model which almost entirely consisted of one long, parentally-controlled audition for marriage. Marriage during this time was less a public declaration of mutual affection and more an essential means of legally exchanging property between families.

Courtship was the ritual that would allow the families to evaluate potential matches and determine if the arrangement would be advantageous. Reputation was also an essential form of social currency that required intimate guarding. Rather, love was regarded as the product of a constructed arrangement, eventually achieved by couples with aligned resources and values. This tradition of parental oversight was legitimized by the law, which held that guardians were permitted and expected to organize the transition of their child into a legal marriage.

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