Upon encountering a new site, the archaeologist immediately requires information about its age in order to set it in context with other sites. In research into our heritage the conservationist or architect may be able to date the general period of a building he is working with from either the situation, materials of construction, type of timber joints or other stylistic features. Almost certainly the century or portion of a century when it was built may be assigned with some certainty. However, as more and more work is done and increasing numbers of structures with complex constructional phases are encountered, the general features may not be sufficient to give the accuracy in dating that is currently required. If research into other sources of information also fails to throw light on the building’s history, resort may be made to the various scientific methods of dating. This article outlines three of the most important methods currently used for dating buildings or, in a complex situation, the order of construction within the building.
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The Roman legacy can be seen in Early Classical Revival homes in the southern regions of the east coast, particularly Virginia. Increasingly, however, archaeological investigations of the early nineteenth century focused on Greece as the mother of Rome and shifted interest to Grecian architectural models. At the same time, the War of increased American resentments of British influence. These factors led to a flowering of what is now known as Greek Revival architecture.
Walter, Ithiel Town, etc.
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What is the date that controls when a contract becomes effective, and why does it matter? There are two basic methods that I’ve seen used on public contracts for establishing the effective date of contracts. Specific Date Stated in Contract: Some contracts will have language at the beginning of the contract that states something like this: Did the contract become effective at an earlier date when both parties signed it, since that is when they documented their agreement?
Does the contract not become effective until both parties sign it after the stated date, even though the contract stated an earlier effective date? Generally, a contract does not become a binding agreement between the two parties until both parties have actually signed it. Thus, using a specific date in the contract as the effective date that not connected to signature dates may be problematic. Date of Last Signature: Under this option, the contract will include language similar to the following: This option appears to avoid some of the ambiguity involved in the first option.
The contract becomes effective when the last party signs the contract, indicating agreement between both parties. Take a look at your contracts, and check with your attorney or obtain legal counsel to see if you should modify your standard contracts relating to when your contracts become effective.
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Each method has a distinct role in the investigation of historic buildings.
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Should we build a solid concrete or cement block foundation? By This Old House magazine Q: We’re planning to build a house in a rural area where the local contractors use foundations made of cement block instead of the solid concrete we’re familiar with. Which one should we use? What kind of foundation a builder uses is usually determined by practical matters:
We also installed “bird blocks” between each set of rafters above the cap logs to hide the future insulation.
The details include a 30 page description of he design and construction process, a photo gallery, and a detailed thermal analysis spreadsheet. This is the most carefully thought out energy retrofit I have seen. R40 Larsen Truss walls, triple glazed R6 super windows, glazing revamped for passive solar heating, a new solarium, a hand crafted masonry heater, and much more. In addition to a very good thermal envelope. Like most good designs, this one is simple and robust without a lot of gadgetry.
Bill’s Larsen Truss Retrofit All the details This is a very nicely done retrofit of a Larsen Truss to the 2nd floor of this two story house. The truss adds an amazing R60 to the wall. Detailed step-by-step instructions for every part of the construction process. Written based on the experience of the Red Feather Development Group in building many straw bales homes.
It includes those time saving short cuts you learn only after doing a job the hard way a few times. Did I mention that I really like this book? MacDonald A very good hands-on book on strawbale home construction.
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See a map of the growth of the railroad in Vermont. Early railroad lines needed to follow the flat river valleys of the mountainous state. The line would enter Burlington from the north, through the foot North Avenue tunnel. Northfield was set up as the headquarters of the Central Vermont Railroad. A second line was soon planned that would head north from Essex to St. The railroad was first open for passenger service between White River Junction and Bethel on June 28,
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This had two rows of uprights on which the ceiling joists rested. The two rows of posts ran the length of the building and created the great central threshing floor or Diele characteristic of this type of farmhouse. This is an asymmetric version of the two- and four-post farmhouses, in which the roof ridge is located almost directly over one of the Deele walls.
Often the lower part of the roof is attached on both sides. The building is supported by four rows of uprights arranged longitudinally, of which two form the sides of the Deele and two form the outer walls. So the outsider walls have a load-bearing function. In farmhouses of more affluent farmers there is also a clearer separation between living quarters and animal stalls.
Dating an old house
Clues to a Building’s History Thomas D. Visser Hand-wrought nail, before circa Type A cut nail, circa s s Type B cut nail, circa s s Wire nail, circa s to present Nails provide one of the best clues to help determine the age of historic buildings, especially those constructed during the nineteenth century, when nail-making technology advanced rapidly. Until the last decade of the s and the early s, hand-wrought nails typically fastened the sheathing and roof boards on building frames.
These nails were made one by one by a blacksmith or nailor from square iron rod. After heating the rod in a forge, the nailor would hammer all four sides of the softened end to form a point.
The cruck frame design is among the earliest, and was .
How are earth walls constructed? There are three principal building methods, all of which are based upon traditional construction techniques. Because DEBA is primarily concerned with the technique of earth building called “cob” which was commonly used in the past in the South West of England, this website concerns itself largely with this technique. For the sake of comparison the other two principal earth building techniques are also described below, but detailed information on these must be sought elsewhere.
Cob, in which subsoil containing ideally approximately equal proportions of clay and silt, sand and fine gravel is thoroughly mixed with water and straw to a fairly stiff but malleable consistency, then built up off a masonry plinth, or underpin course, in successive layers about mm high, allowing each one to dry out before the next one is laid, until eaves level is reached.
Walls are normally to mm thick. Loose, damp rather than wet soil, containing no straw, is placed in layers to mm deep and compacted using either manual or pneumatically powered rammers. When the soil has been adequately compacted the formwork is removed, usually straight away. Construction can proceed continuously, without waiting for successive lifts to dry out.
Wall thickness varies, typically, from to mm.
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Corrosion and decay of the building fabric.
In May , New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it. The national capital moved to Philadelphia in December The July Residence Act named Philadelphia , Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a year period while the Federal City was under construction. The first president occupied the Market Street mansion from November to March , and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House.
As part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. On Saturday,  November 1, ,  he became the first president to occupy the White House. The President’s House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in , while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. April — February President’s House , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
November — March
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Instead of wasting perfectly good materials, donation puts them to work.
Examining the House’s Construction 1 Evaluate the materials used. Over the years, many different types of materials and styles of craftsmanship are used to build houses. The types of materials used can give you some ideas about when the house was built and how long it has been since any changes were made. If there is a toilet in your house that is original to the house, the date stamp on the water tank lid will give you a good idea of when the house was built.
If the toilet isn’t original, that date will at least give you an idea when the bathroom was last remodeled. If your house has a mansard roof, for example, it was likely built in the late 19th century.
Block vs. Concrete
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The only First Period example of log building in Massachusetts, the Old Garrison House in Rockport, is of hewn timbers some 9 inches deep and up to 18 inches high.
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